1. "The Collection of People in Wutai Mountain-Xu Yang's Painting of Ping Ding Xiyu Prisoners", Cultural Relics Publishing House, 2009.
2. Luo Yan, "The Sacrificial Ceremony of the Qing Dynasty", page 224, China Youth Publishing House, 2011.
3. "The World in the Prosperous Qing Dynasty: Kang Yongqian Palace Art Exhibition" edited by Long Museum, pp. 180-183, Shanghai Calligraphy and Painting Publishing House, 2015.
4. "Three Hundred Tang Poems", pp. 125-126, illustration of "Soldier Chariots", Southeast University Press, 2015.
5. Wang Saishi, "Chinese Wine History" (Illustrated Edition), p. 363, Shandong Pictorial Publishing House, 2018.
6. Nie Chongzheng, "Viewing Xu Yang's Paintings <Ping Ding Western Regions Presenting Prisoners Picture>", "Paintings and Painters of the Qing Palace", Volume 2, pages 344 and 345, Forbidden City Press, 2019.
1. "The Collection of Secret Temple Zhulin Shiqu Baoji" (4), p. 788, Beijing Publishing House, 2004.
2. Hu Jing's "Painting Records of the Guochaoyuan", 21st Year of Jiaqing (1816), Volume 1 of "Paintings and Calligraphy of Past Dynasties", page 452, Beijing Library Press, 2007.
3. "The Archives Collection of the Internal Affairs Office of the Qing Palace" 28 volumes, page 826, People's Publishing House, 2007.
4. "The Qing Palace Furnishings Archives in the Palace Museum", Volume 5, page 686, July 11, Daoguang 15th year, Kunning Palace was added to the Shiqu Baoji Archives, Palace Press, 2013.
5. "Archives of Qing Palace Furnishings in the Palace Museum Collection", Volume 5, page 832, March 4th, Guangxu Second Year, Zhulin Archives of the Secret Hall of the Winter Warm Pavilion of Kunning Palace, Palace Press, 2013.
6. "The Qing Palace Furnishings Archives in the Palace Museum", Volume 6, page 84, October 4th, the second year of Guangxu, Kunning Palace Winter Nuan Pavilion is now set up and secret hall Zhulin Archives, Palace Press, 2013.
7. "The Collection of Qing Palace Furnishings Archives in the Palace Museum", volume 5, page 109, 14th year of Xuantong, the book of calligraphy and painting archives of Qianqing Palace, original volume, Palace Press, 2013.
8. "Four Catalogues of Lost Books and Calligraphy in the Forbidden City", "Appreciation of Pujie Calligraphy and Painting Catalogue", p. 14, National Palace Museum, Beijing, 1934.
9. Chen Rentao's proofreading "Golden Chamber Room Series Two-The Forbidden City's Lost Calligraphy and Painting Catalogue proofreading", p. 35, Hong Kong Tongying Company, 1956.
10. Wang Bomin, "A General History of Chinese Art", Volume 6, Page 153, Shandong Education Publishing House, 1983.
11. Yang Renkai, "A Record of the Ups and Downs of National Treasures", p. 616, Shanghai People's Fine Arts Publishing House, 1991.
12. Nie Chongzheng, "The Glory of Court Art: A Collection of Court Paintings in the Qing Dynasty", p. 136, Taiwan Dongda Book Co., Ltd., 1996.
13. Pan Yaochang, Editor-in-Chief, "Dictionary of Appreciation of Chinese Art Masterpieces", page 685, Zhejiang Literature and Art Publishing House, 1999.
14. "A Dictionary of Chinese Painters' Names in Past Dynasties", page 1011, People's Fine Arts Publishing House, 2003.
15. [America] Fu Kaisen, "The Continuation of Recorded Paintings in Past Dynasties", page 456, Beijing Library Press, 2007.
Topic: Xu Yang drew a picture of pacifying the Western Regions and presenting prisoners.
Question: In October of the twenty-fourth year of Shangyuji, the Western Regions were pacified, and Lubu went to the capital. In the first lunar month of next year, the prisoners will be presented at Meridian Gate. Dancing Yuyu, playing Xiao Shao, cure and fix success, Liming and music preparation. The territory of Weishixinsu, those who rush to congratulate, such as Brut, Kazakh, Andiyan, Khotan, Kuqa, Badakshan, Hashhar, Yerqimu and other countries west of Ili, cannot be counted. . Its extra-territorial feudal vassals, worship the underdogs, such as North Korea, Japan, Sulu, Luzon, Nanzhang, Ryukyu, Myanmar, Brunei, Annan, Machen, Siam, Sula, Shupuzhai, Malacca, Countries such as large and small Western countries cannot be counted. The sword wear of Ying Ting, the garment of all nations, like the arch of stars, like the dynasty of thousands of waters. So grandiose! Since Pangu, for more than 47,000 years, there has never been a prosperous one! In the past, Yan Liben, Yan Shigu, the all-neng picture chronicling the affairs of the country, hangs down on the bamboo and silk. Chen Yi is never equal, but fortunately, the deacon's inner court, the friendship should be displayed. Congratulations to my emperor, benevolence is gradually righteous, far from the Han and Tang dynasties, morality and god, beyond Longgu. Use dare to forget the solid and ugly, respect and become a figure, worship the hand and check the head to offer. Minister Xu Yang respectfully painted and postscript.
Seal: Chen Xu Yang, Bi Zhan Chunyu
Appreciation Seal: Qianqing Palace Treasure, Wufu Five Dynasties Hall, Ancient Rare Emperor's Treasure, Eight Signs of Mindfulness, Treasures of the Taishang Emperor, Shiqu Baoji, Shiqu Dingjian, Baoji Recompilation, Qianlong Imperial View Treasure, Qianlong Appreciation, Qianqing Palace Jian Zang Treasure, Sanxi Tang Jing Jian Xi, Yi Descendants, Jiaqing Imperial Lan Bao, Xuantong Imperial Lan Bao
Exhibition: The World of the Prosperous Qing Dynasty—The Grand Exhibition of Kang Yongqian Palace Art, Shanghai Long Museum West Bund, August 2015.
Description: Originally mounted in the Palace of the Qing Dynasty, covered with brocade, with jade paintings.
Viewing Xu Yang's "Ping Ding Xiyu (Hui Bu) Prisoners Presenting Picture" volume
In order to quell the local rebellion of the Mongol Dawaqi of the Junggar tribe and the Hui Dynasty Xiaohezhuomu (Dahe Zhuomu Boluo Nidu, Xiaohe Zhuomu Huojizhan), the central government of the Qing Dynasty and Qianlong rebelled in the 20th year of Qianlong (1755). In the twenty-third and twenty-four years (1758, 1759), troops were sent to the Western Regions. After many large-scale battles in a fairly large area, they finally won victory. The quelling of the chaos became one of the perfect martial arts that Emperor Qianlong was proud of. In addition to being recorded in historical records, Emperor Qianlong also ordered court painters to draw a series of works for commemoration. Xu Yang painted "Ping Ding the Western Regions" Back to the Department) Picture of Prisoners Offering Gifts" volume is one of them.
The volume of "Ping Ding Western Regions (Hui Bu) Presenting Prisoners" is a color painting on paper, 42 cm in length and 1800 cm in width. I was awarded this volume in 2007. The scroll is preserved as it was mounted in the Qing Palace, with a brocade at the top of the package, and the inscription is signed by Xu Yang to Ping the Western Regions, and the jade paintings are also well-preserved.
This volume is recorded in the "Sequel of Shiqu Baoji", the eight seals are all stored in the Palace of the Qing Dynasty, and the scroll is also sealed with the five blessings and five generations of the ancient treasure of the emperor, the treasure of the eight zodiacs, the treasure of the Emperor Taishang, the treasure of the Jiaqing imperial view, Xuantong Yulanzhibao and other seals of the Qing palace depict the scene of the ceremony of offering prisoners in the capital after the victory of the Ding Ding Zhun Department and the Hui Department.
The Prisoner Offering Ceremony is a military ceremony of the Qing Palace, and the relevant regulations and ceremonies are recorded in detail in the "Great Qing Huidian". The picture in Xu Yang's volume starts with Zhengyang Gate in Beijing, passing through Qipan Street and Tiananmen Square, the halogen book ceremonial guards line up from Duanmen to Meridian Gate, and the Emperor's Throne is located on the Meridian Gate. The whole picture uses realistic brushwork to record a historical moment, with numerous characters, meticulously portrayed, and bright and full of colors. It is a representative work of the Qing court documentary paintings during the Qianlong period. The Prison Offering Ceremony was also held during the Kangxi and Yongzheng dynasties of the saint ancestor, but it is only seen in written records, and no images have been circulated. Therefore, Xu Yang’s picture is of extraordinary significance and has both artistic value and historical value.
At the end of the scroll, there is a postscript from the book of Xu Yang: In October of the twenty-fourth year of Shangyuji, he pacified Lubu from the Western Regions to the capital, and presents prisoners to the Wumen in the first month of the next year. Dancing the feathers, playing the Xiao Shao, cures and fixes the merits, and prepares for it with courtesy, Ming and Yue. The territory of the Victorian government, the first to enter the country, such as Brut, Kazakh, Andiyan, Khotan, Kuqa, Badakshan, Hashhar, Yerqimu and other countries west of Ili, cannot be counted. Its extra-territorial feudal vassals worshiped those who were subordinates such as North Korea, Japan, Sulu, Luzon, Nanzhang, Ryukyu, Myanmar, Brunei, Annan, Machen, Siam, Sula, Cambodia, Malacca, Big and Small Western countries, etc. They cannot be counted. The sword wear of Yingting, the crown of all nations, like the arch of stars, like the dynasty of thousands of waters, majestic and majestic! Since Pangu, for more than 47,000 years, there hasn't been one that is as prosperous as it is today. In the past, Yan Liben and Yan Shigu were able to record state affairs with pictures, hanging down on the bamboo and silk, and the courtesy and the best. Fortunately, the deacon's inner court, the friendship should be displayed. Respectfully my emperor benevolence is gradually righteous, far from the Han and Tang Dynasties, Desheng transforms the gods, transcends Longgu, dares to forget the stubbornness, respects and becomes a figure, worships the hands and consecrates the head to offer. The minister Xu Yang painted and postscripted, and gave the seal of the minister Xu Yang and the seal of Chunyu.
According to the "Accounting File of the Internal Affairs Office", Xu Yang's drawing should be completed twenty-nine years before Qianlong. November 5th, 29th: Received a post from Langzhong Dekui member Wai Lang Wenzhao and posted a piece of internal opening. On October 25th, the leader Dong Wujing handed over a hand scroll of Xu Yang's painting of the Western Regions Prisoners, and handed over the decree. The box in the Ruyi Pavilion is still sent to the south with the furnishings. Follow the previous method and do the same, Qin here. There is a slight difference between the picture of offering prisoners in the Western Regions in "Huo Ji Dian" and the picture of offering prisoners in the Western Regions in "Shiqu Baoji".
Xu Yang was an important court painter in the mid-Qianlong period. His life can be found in "Painting Records of the Guochaoyuan", "A Sketch of Reading Paintings", "Tongkao of Imperial Documents" and other books. In the Qing Dynasty Hu Jing's "Painting Records of Guochaoyuan": Xu Yang, named Yunting, a native of Wuxian, a figure of engineering landscape. Worked in the painting academy in Qianlongzhong, courtesy of jurors, book in the official cabinet, "Shiqu" recorded thirty-five, and the sequel contains 12 volumes of "Southern Tour Map". The book "Reading Picture Collection" (anonymous author) records:... In the 16th year of Qianlong (1751 AD), he traveled south, (Xu Yang) Gong entered the picture album, looked up to Heen, and ordered to come to Beijing to worship the inner court. Ether students tried Beiwei twice, but if they failed, they looked for special gifts and tried them together. After Bingxu (Thirty-one Years of Qianlong, 1766), he was awarded the Cabinet Book of Letters. According to Volume 50 of the "Tong Kao of Imperial Documents", it is stated that in the eighteenth year of Emperor Qianlong (1753), the imperial decree was: Zhang Zongcang, the county where the inner court walked, and Xu Yang and Yang Ruilian, the supervisors, served for several years. At the end of the day, Jiaen rewarded the additional chief of the household department, and Xu Yang and Yang Ruilian rewarded Juren with Jiaen.
Comprehensive literature shows that Xu Yang was a native of Suzhou, born in the 51st year of Kangxi (1712, see "Complete Archives of Qing Dynasty Officials"). His year of death is unknown. He was a supervisor before entering the palace and served as a scholar. A professional painter whose career is painting. In the 16th year of Qianlong (1751), the emperor made his first southern tour. When he passed through Suzhou, Xu Yang was admired in his painting album. The emperor ordered him to serve in the palace. Xu Yang arrived in the capital in early June of the same year.
On July 12, the "Internal Affairs Office Work Accounting Documents" recorded that: The deputy reminder Buddha kept a post from the visiting member Wailang Lang Zhengpei and the reminder General Dekui. The internal opening was for Yuan Wailang Lang Zhengpei on the second day of June: Painters Zhang Zongcang and Xu Yang will be rewarded with the same monthly money and food as Yu Sheng and Ding Guanpeng, starting in June. Qin this.
Yu Sheng and Ding Guanpeng are both first-class painters, earning eleven taels of silver each month, the highest remuneration. Xu Yang was so pampered as soon as he entered the palace, which shows that his painting skills are different. Emperor Qianlong appreciated his talents. Because Xu Yang was a scholar, Emperor Qianlong looked at him differently and took special care of him and asked Xu Yang to try Beiwei twice as a student. Although he failed, the emperor bestowed him the title of book in the cabinet. It was also a special grace. . Xu Yang created huge works in the Qianlong court, and participated in the drawing of the large-scale "Qianlong Tour to the South" volume, as well as the "Prosperity Breeding Map" volume, (also known as the "Gusu Prosperous Map" volume, now in the collection of Liaoning Province Museum), "Intentions of Spring Poems by Teachers and Students in Beijing" axis (now in the collection of the Palace Museum in Beijing), and the volume of "Southern Tour Ji Dao Tu" and other important works have been handed down to the world.
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