• (Qing Dynasty) Zhang Zhao et al., "Secret Temple Zhulin·Shiqu Baoji Collection" Volume 11, Beijing Publishing House, 2004, pages 2805-2806;
• Xu Bangda: "Pu Yi's Appreciation of Pu Jie's Calligraphy and Paintings", published in "Cultural Relics", 1950, 12 issues;
• Zhu Qiqian: Volume 1 of "The Book of Silk Calligraphy and Calligraphy in the Inner Palace of the Qing Dynasty", Volume 4 of "Art Series" edited by Huang Binhong and Deng Shi, Zhejiang People's Fine Arts Publishing House, 2018;
• "Four Catalogues of Lost Books and Calligraphy in the Forbidden City: Appreciation of Pujie's Calligraphy and Calligraphy", "Book List Series" edited by Tao Xiang (2), Liaoning Education Press, 2000;
• Edited by Poly Art Research Institute and Poly Art Museum: "The World of Hongli", No. 63, Shanghai Painting and Calligraphy Publishing House, 2021
• "The Archives of the House of Internal Affairs of the Qing Dynasty", October 29, forty-sixth year of Qianlong, Chronicles, pages 618 to 621;
• Compiled by the Palace Museum: Volume 35 of "The Furnishings Archives of the Qing Palace", "Hand-rolled Files of the Third Compilation of Lishiqu Baoji in June of the 14th Year of Daoguang", p. 38, Beijing Palace Press;
• Compiled by the Palace Museum: "Archives of the Qing Palace Furnishings", Volume 36, "Manuscripts of the Yanchun Pavilion in the Second Year of the Guangxu Reign (Senior and Second Grade Shiqu Baoji)", p. 82, Beijing Palace Press;
• Compiled by the Palace Museum: Volume 34 of "Archives of Qing Palace Furnishings", "Jingyixuan Hand-rolled Accounts in April 12th Year of Xuantong", page 601, Beijing Palace Press
• Beijing Auction House, May 17, 2004, No. 2203, transaction price: 35,750,000 RMB, a record high price
• Poly Art Research Institute, Poly Art Museum, "The World of Hongli-Qianlong Imperial Poem Manuscripts, Orchid Pavilion Picture Tie Kesi Scrolls and Important Palace Art Special Exhibition", Beijing, April 23-May 10, 2021
To bid for this lot, please contact the relevant business personnel of our company to apply for a special bid number plate in advance.
Qianlong's emphasis on the style of the Jin and Tang dynasties, among which Wang Xizhi was his main target. This "Complete Engraved and Supplementary Engraved Stone Orchid Pavilion by Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty" is the culmination of the vast "Orchid Pavilion Cultural Project" in Qianlong's life. It is also a masterpiece of the theme of "Orchid Pavilion" in Chinese history. "The admiration of culture has reached its peak.
In the forty-fourth year of Qianlong (Jihai, 1779), the eight most precious Lanting prefaces and ink copies and copies of Lanting poems in the Neifu collection, including works written by Qianlong himself, were stored in the "Lanting Eight Pillars" In the interlayer of a red sandalwood screen carved with the Lanting pattern, eight works are placed according to the Eight Diagrams.
In the forty-five year of Qianlong (Gengzi, 1780), he obtained the Lanting stone carved by Zhou Wang Zhu Youdun and his father and son Yi Wang Wanli during the Yongle period of the Ming Dynasty. The female parent of silk hand-rolled.
In the forty-sixth year of Qianlong (Xin Chou, 1781), he wrote an imperial poem "Supplementing the Ming Dynasty Duanshi Lanting Picture and Posting Poems for Aspirations". The poem will make the ins and outs of the Lanting Pavilion clearly presented, and then name its purpose "Yongqi" year". And on October 29 of the same year, it was decreed to "re-engrave the first volume of the Ming Dynasty Orchid Pavilion" and "interweave Suzhou to make the whole Germany on its own behalf", and it was clear that the Kesi version of the Orchid Pavilion should be produced in this year, namely This work.
Before Qianlong abdicated in the 60th year, the original volume "Lanting Tutie Kesi Roll" was completed. Including 10 "Lanting" imperial poems created in his lifetime, Qianlong established a huge "Lanting Cultural Project". There may be a deeper reason behind it, that is, the rulers of the Qing Dynasty intended to establish a high-level cultural identity in the Han literati circle and to obtain the true identity of the orthodoxy. Therefore, the "Orchid Pavilion" culture, which has been passed down for more than 1,400 years, has become a key hub.
The entire hand scroll is woven with tapestry silk, and the title is "The Complete Volume of Tapestry Silk with the King-Declared Supplementary Engraved Shilan Pavilion Picture" in the Jinjian regular script. The whole width is woven with natural silk thread. Only a small section of the tail of the scroll has a lake blue background, and the total length is up to It is 1714.5 cm and 31.6 cm wide. It was recorded in the third part of "Shiqu Baoji", originally stored in the Yanchun Pavilion of Jianfu Palace in the Forbidden City. It is the only work known as a tapestry work based on rubbings, and it is also seen so far. The longest hand-rolled tapestry is also a rare orphan. The “Chibi Fu Picture Scroll of Emperor Qianlong Kesi in the Qing Dynasty” collected by the Palace Museum in Beijing is the longest hand scroll of the existing Kesi paintings in the Forbidden City, but it is only 498 cm long. The head of the bag is a yellow-ground mirror flower "卐" with a geometric pattern imitating Song brocade, with a double-layer brocade ribbon with a fragrant sea water miscellaneous treasure pattern. It is equipped with a sapphire jade, with a cirrus cloud and dragon pattern engraved on one side and the six-character "Daming Wanli Years System" engraved on the other side. It is a Ming Dynasty jade in the palace of the Qing Dynasty. It shows the attention to detail when mounting.
Baoshoulizi is lake-blue Ssangyong play bead dark-flowered damask, and the front water is light yellow double-dragon play bead dark-flowered damask. The original color of the leading tapestry is blank and there is no inscription. According to the content, this volume is made up of 32 sections of tapestry, each section is different in length, whether it is text or pictures, try to keep the integrity of the content. The whole can be divided into three parts: the first part is pure text, with Qianlong's decree "Carving the Eight Pillars of Lanting Pavilion", Qianlong's Royal Pen "Supplementing the Poems of the Lanting Pavilion at Duanshi of the Ming Dynasty", and the records of the emperor's imperial flow and Zhu Chang ■ The inscription and Qianlong's supplementary engraving of the Neifu Zang Dingwu edition Lanting, Dingwu Fei edition, Yu Shinan edition, Chu Suiliang edition, Tang Moci edition, Zhu Youdun postscript; the second part is the "Imitated Li Gonglin Flowing Scene", with a total of 60 people in the picture , Including 43 senior scholars, 17 boys, and 1185 small characters for names and poems; the third part is the inscription and postscript, including the preface of Sun Chuohou, Liu Gongquan, Mi Fu, Song Gaozong Yuzha, He Yannian, Huang Bosi and other nine people's miscellaneous notes Textual research, Zhu Youdun post, Zhu Zhifan post, Zhao Mengfu eighteen post, Zhu Yihuan, Qing Confucian official Liang Guozhi, Dong Gao et al. In the first and third parts, there are 7,977 large calligraphy characters in various styles. From these specific figures, we can infer the huge manpower and material resources used to weave this hand scroll.
The whole volume has 32 sections of varying sizes. The first part is all text. There are 12 sections in total. The lengths of each section are: 65.7 cm, 27.2 cm, 27 cm, 22.6 cm, 53.5 cm, 53.2 cm, 69.2 cm, 66.5 cm, 63.4 Cm, 71.6 cm, 63.3 cm, 27.1 cm. The second part is the picture part, the content is the imitation of Li Gonglin's flow chart, during which there are 43 senior scholars, 17 boy attendants, and 26 poems and 16 names are framed. This part is composed of 7 segments, the segment lengths are: 53.2 cm, 70.4 cm, 63.4 cm, 42 cm, 39.6 cm, 48.2 cm, 50.3 cm. The third part is also composed of pure text, 13 segments are stitched together, and the length of each segment is: 59.7 cm, 65.4 cm, 70 cm, 68.4 cm, 63.8 cm, 37.8 cm, 66 cm, 66.6 cm, 55.5 cm, 46.5 cm, 39.2 cm, 37.2 cm, 37.2 cm.
There are a total of 51 stamps in the entire width, of which 5 are the identification collection stamps of the seal cover after the tapestry hand-rolled weaving is completed. They are: the oval-shaped seal "Treasure of Qianlong Imperial Lantern" and "Jiaqing Imperial Lantern" printed on the front of the scroll. "The Treasures", sealed in the Chang ■Shuming square seal "Bao Ji three series" between the book of Emperor Gaodi Liuzou in Shuming and the preface of Dingwu Lanting's poem, and the rectangular seal "Jiaqing Appreciation" at the end of the volume of Dingwu Lanting's poem preface , The elliptical "Treasure of Xuantong Yulan" is sealed at the end of the second part "Imitating Li Gonglin's Flowing Scene". The remaining 46 seals are all made of tapestry, which should be the existing seals of this hand-rolled copy.
This hand scroll is recorded in the "Shiqu Baoji Third Edition". According to the "Archives of the House of Internal Affairs of the Qing Dynasty", it has been woven since the forty-sixth year of Qianlong. It is not included in the "Shiqu Baoji Sequel", which is not included in the 58th "Shiqu Baoji Sequel", so it can It is roughly inferred that this hand-rolled tapestry silk was woven for more than ten years, and the difficulty can be imagined. After the hand-roll weaving is completed, it is stored in the Yanchun Pavilion of Jianfu Palace, where precious cultural relics from the Qianlong period are collected here. Since Qianlong's death, in order to express his respect and filial piety to the Emperor Kao, Jiaqing ordered all the favorite treasures of Emperor Qianlong in the collection of Jianfu Palace, including Yanchun Pavilion, to be sealed up. These palaces were not opened until the Xuantong period in the late Qing Dynasty. It can be seen from the seal record on this hand-rolled tapestry that since the appreciation of Jiaqing, it has been deeply hidden in the palace until after Puyi's appreciation, Pujie took it out of the palace in the name of reward. At that time, the cultural relics that Puyi brought out were all selected from the best, and from this aspect, the importance of this hand scroll can also be reflected. After Pu Jie took it out of the palace, he moved to Tianjin, and then lived in the Puppet Manchukuo in the northeast. After living among the people, he was resold by paint dealers surnamed Chen and Belarus. It was bought with a lot of money and kept overseas for more than 60 years. Until 2004, he appeared in domestic auction houses and sold at a price of nearly 35.75 million, setting a world record for the tapestry auction, which has been kept to this day. There is another thing worth mentioning. In the twelfth year of the Republic of China, half a year after Puyi gave this tapestry pavilion to the palace, the Jianfu Palace was stolen by the eunuch, and a fire broke out. This fire destroyed many cultural relics. , Is still a mystery, and this hand scroll survived, this is how lucky it is.
Emperor Qianlong had a keen interest in calligraphy when he was young. He loved Danqing all his life. After he became the throne, he did not forget to study and study. In addition to daily government affairs, he often "expressed his hand", was diligent in writing and entertained himself with calligraphy, not only inherited the appreciation of ancient emperors' calligraphy and painting. Tradition, extensive collection of famous relics of predecessors, and personally study ancient posts, immersed in calligraphy creation, leaving a large number of poetry inscriptions on the painting and calligraphy collections and other cultural relics in the inner government.
According to Qianlong’s imperial brush view, his calligraphy started with Zhao Mengfu’s "Panjun Temple Stele" when he was a child, to Yan Zhenqing’s "Multi-Pagoda Stele", and then to Wang Xizhi’s lower script "Le Yi Lun" and Dong Qichang’s Xingcao. When the court, courtiers, calligraphers and painters communicated, not only improved their own taste of calligraphy and calligraphy appreciation, but also improved their own calligraphy practice ability. Qianlong showed a very cautious and professional calligrapher's attitude in calligraphy creation. It can be seen from the imperial poetry manuscript that his brushwork changed from delicate and fluent to vigorous, round and vigorous, calligraphy (line, cursive) and style ( Taking the Eastern Jin Dynasty Wang Xizhi as the law), it is always the same. Zhupi is a daily practical document. It is a little more relaxed when writing than inscriptions and postscripts. The pen also changes in lightness and intensity. The characters are dense and dense, and the movement is consistent, adding a lot of calligraphy beauty.
This Kesilan Pavilion hand scroll is the only Kesi work known to date that uses inscriptions as a base for woven tapes. Its base is a collection of the Palace Museum and the Qing Palace in the forty-fifth year of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1780). Supplementary engraving of the Ming Dynasty Duanshi Lanting Picture Post. The National Palace Museum now has four rubbings of "Orchid Pavilion Picture", namely: the large scroll "Orchid Pavilion Picture" ("Huangnan" edition) engraved by Yiwang, and the large volume "Orchid Pavilion Picture" ("Xianyuan" edition) engraved by Yiwang. ), Yiwang engraved small scroll "Lan Pavilion Picture", Qianlong "Imperial Supplement Carved Ming Dynasty Duanshi Lanting Picture Post".
For thousands of years, there have been no distinctions between the south, east, and northwest in China. People regardless of age, men and women, have no knowledge of the book saint Wang Xizhi and his post "Lanting Preface". Calligraphy Lanting is the only way for many calligraphers to become famous. Wang Xizhi took advantage of the book when he was full of wine. This manuscript is perfect in terms of composition, structure, or brushwork. It is Wang Xi’s proud work. Later, he "more books dozens of hundreds, but it is not enough", and was recommended by the calligraphers of the past dynasties. Running script first.
According to legend, the manuscript of this preface has been hidden in the Wang family's home, and is his family treasure, until it was visited by Taizong Li Shimin in the early Tang Dynasty. Tang Taizong loved the "Lanting Preface" and he often "placed his seat on the side and watched it day and night". Before his death, he named his hand to make copies with techniques such as double hooks, tracing, and other techniques. After his death, his son Li Zhi buried the "Lanting Preface" with him, but later generations. Only facsimile and engraved copies are circulated. The original "Lanting Preface" is like a glorious sunset on the horizon, appearing briefly in the world, and then disappearing into the long night.
Kesi is a kind of silk thread woven by a special method. It uses mulberry silk as raw material, raw silk as warp, and cooked silk dyed as weft. First, the natural color silk is warped on the wooden machine, and then the drawing is lined under the warp. The outline of the pattern is copied to the warp with a brush, and the silk threads of various colors are passed through with multiple small shuttles. The shuttles are changed at will according to the color of the pattern. It is woven, so it is extremely expressive, and is called "passing warp and breaking weft".
In Qianlong's heyday, the country was prosperous, the people were strong, and the economy was highly developed. Kesi technology reached the peak of history. Kesi paintings and calligraphy flourished during the Qianlong dynasty. Among them, a number of Kesi Emperor Qianlong’s imperial poetry works are unique with their superb craftsmanship and extraordinary historical value. They represent the art of Kesi art in the Qing Dynasty. High level of development. In Zhu Qiqian's "Books and Calligraphy of Kesi Collection in Qing Neifu", there are 116 Kesi books in the Qing Dynasty palace collection of Qianlong period, of which there are 88 books on Kesi Emperor Qianlong's imperial pen. It is precisely because of Emperor Qianlong's special love and the superb Kesi skills and production capacity at that time that this masterpiece such as the "Complete Engraving and Engraving of the Shilan Pavilion at the End of the Shilan Pavilion by the King" can be produced.
The hand scroll of the Kesi Lanting pavilion, the calligraphy part of which is mostly made of flat ware, and the seal is often used as a shuttle. In the part of Li Gonglin's flow chart, a variety of tapestry techniques are used, such as the flat tape used in the treatment of large color areas, the length and the length of the mountain-like stone, the phoenix tail in the grass, the border of the famous poetry and the outer edge of the cushion. The structure used in other places, such as the long linear pattern of the structure, the pavilion, the pillars and the bamboo repair, the shuttle used to fix the long linear pattern, the hook used in the water pattern, the winding of the white goose feather in the water, the knot used in the daylily, etc. The method of weaving, the whole article shares more than 20 kinds of silk threads with different shades and colors. The image of the masters and boys is vivid, the scenery is realistic, the mountain and stone hooks are covered in stone, mainly in azurite, stone green, ocher and other colors, showing a small green landscape The style reflects the superb craftsmanship of the Kesi artists in the Qing Dynasty.
The tightness of the latitude and longitude lines of this tapestry pavilion, the complexity of the artwork, and the size of the area show that the scale of the project is the longest tapestry hand scroll known to date. The complicated craftsmanship is condensed with painting, calligraphy, and seal. Printing a variety of art categories represents the pinnacle of Kesi craftsmanship in the Qing Dynasty, and is also Qianlong's ultimate pursuit of art regardless of cost.